how to formula pig feed ingredients
1. Reasonable selection of raw materials
selection raw materials is the first step and also the most important step of how to formulate pig feed, When you choose raw materials for preparing pig feed formulation, the following points must be noted.
First, paying attention to the volume of raw materials. In order to ensure that pigs can eat the nutrients needed every day, the volume of the selected raw materials must be compatible with the volume of the digestive tract of pigs. If the volume is too large, the amount of feed required by the pig can not be eaten, which will cause the nutrients can not meet the needs, but also increase the burden on the digestive tract; if the volume is too small, although the nutrients are satisfied, but the pig does not feel full, will show irritability, thus affecting its growth and development.
Second, should be based on local conditions, the principle of local materials, making full use of local raw material resources.
Third, paying attention to the characteristics of feed ingredients. To grasp the relevant characteristics of raw materials, such as palatability, the content of toxic and harmful ingredients in the feed and feed pollution and mold, etc., poor palatability, the amount of raw materials containing toxins should be limited, serious pollution, moldy raw materials should not be used.
Fourth, paying attention to the type and amount of raw materials.
Variety of raw materials should be diversified in order to play a variety of nutritional complementarity among raw materials. Commonly used as pig feed ingredients such as corn, rice, barley, wheat, sorghum and other raw materials accounted for 5O% ~ 7%, bran such as wheat bran, rice bran, etc. accounted for lO% ~ 2O%, soybean cake, soybean meal accounted for l5% ~ 2O%, animal protein feed such as fish meal, pupae powder accounted for 3% ~ 7%, grass meal, leaf meal less than 5%, shell powder or stone powder accounted for 3% ~ 3.5%, bone meal accounted for 2% ~ 2.5%, salt to less than O.5%.
2. Processing modulation should be reasonable
crushing process is the second step of how to formulate pig feed ingredients, In addition to wheat bran, rice bran, fish flour, bone meal and other powdered raw materials, corn, beans, rice and other raw materials should be properly crushed, raw soybeans need to be fried and then can be used.
3. Mixing pig feed ingredients well
mixing process is the third step of how to formula pig feed ingredients, when you mixing pig feed ingredients, various raw materials must be mixed evenly to ensure that pigs eat all the nutrition they need. Especially when adding premix, if the feed is not mixed evenly, it is easy to cause drug or trace element poisoning after pigs eat it.
4. Mastering pig breeding standards
Pigs with different production purposes and different growth stages have different nutrient requirements. Therefore, different feeding standards should be selected to formulate the diet according to the production purpose, age and weight of pigs.
types of pig feed
1. energy type pig feed
Energy type pig feed is a feed with crude fiber content less than 18% and crude protein content less than 20% in dry matter. It is characterized by high energy, less crude fiber, and good palatability. energy type pig feed ingredients include grain feed, bran feed, barley, corn, sorghum, wheat, millet, rice, buckwheat, sorghum bran, barnyard bran, wheat bran, etc.
2. roughage type pig feed
Generally air-dried feeds are fed with lower nutritional value compared to other feeds, roughage type pig feed ingredients mainly include hay, straw, leaves, grass flour and agricultural by-products and leaves, etc.
3. protein type pig feed
Protein type pig feeds have a low natural water content and a protein content of more than 20%, consisting of plant-based or animal-based protein feeds. protein pig feed ingredients includes plant-based protein feed: soybean, soybean cake, peanut cake, rapeseed cake, etc. Animal protein feeds: cicada pupae, fish and shrimp meal, meat meal, dairy products, etc.
4. mineral type pig feed
Mineral pig feeds can supplement pigs with mineral elements, which are indispensable nutrients for pigs’ growth process, and can be added in appropriate amount. mineral pig feed ingredients include minerals such as calcium carbonate, copper sulfate, table salt, potassium iodide, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate and other mineral additives premix. and including all kinds of vitamins A, B, D, etc., which can make the pig’s body work better in the metabolic process.
ingredients for pig feed formulation for different stage
Feed is the basis of pig growth and development, and the nutritional value of any component in pig feed is different, so it should be scientifically proportioned according to different growth stages of pigs, adding vitamins, minerals and other trace elements in order to make pigs eat feed with better effect, and the best pig feed recipe is generally based on the weight of pigs as the reference standard.
1. pig feed recipe for small pigs (about 10-20 kg)
Corn meal 57%, soybean meal 20%, fish meal 5%, rice bran or wheat bran 15%, calcium hydrogen phosphate 1%, shellac 0.5%, salt 0.35%, premix 1% (containing trace elements, vitamins, non-nutritive additives, etc.) .
This pig feed formulation contains 3230 calories/kg of digestible energy, 18.4% crude protein, 3.5% crude fiber, 0.73% calcium, 0.682% phosphorus and 0.92% lysine, all indicators meet the nutritional needs of piglet diets, which is a relatively standard piglet feed nutrition formula.
2. pig feed formulation for large pigs (about 60 to 90 kg or more)
Corn meal 70%, soybean meal 15%, rice bran or wheat bran 12%, calcium hydrogen phosphate 1.0%, shellac 0.8%, salt 0.35%, premix (containing trace elements, vitamins, non-nutritive additives, etc.) 1%.
This pig feed formula has 14% crude protein, 3240 calories/kg digestible energy, 3.7% crude fiber, 0.60% calcium, 0.535% phosphorus, 0.65% lysine, all indicators can meet the nutritional needs of large pigs’ diet, and it is not too high, it is a relatively standard nutrition formula for large pigs’ feed. However, lysine is only 0.02% more than 0.63% of the feeding standard. In recent years, climate warming, flooding rainy season to promote the widespread occurrence and growth of mold in food production, plus food and feed storage, transportation will also lead to more mycotoxin production, which is directly manifested in the increasingly serious harm to livestock and poultry.
3. pig feed Formula for medium-sized pigs (about 20-60 kg)
Corn meal 62%, soybean meal 20%, rice bran or wheat bran 15%, calcium hydrogen phosphate 1.2%, shellac 0.8%, salt 0.35%, premix 1% (containing trace elements, vitamins, non-nutritive additives, etc.) .
This pig feed formula has 16% crude protein, 3180 calories/kg digestible energy, 3.8% crude fiber, 0.656% calcium, 0.577% phosphorus, 0.74% lysine, all indicators can meet the nutritional needs of the diet for medium-sized pigs, and it is not too high, which is a relatively standard nutritional formula for medium-sized pig feed. However, due to the removal of fish meal, the lysine content decreased more, 0.01% less than the 0.75% required by the feeding standard, but the correlation is not big and can be ignored.
attention to preparing ingredients for pig feed formulation
1. When you prepare pig feed recipe, you must pay attention to the relationship between the intake of pigs and the size of feed volume. If the feed is too much then the pig’s gastrointestinal volume is limited will not be able to eat, the nutrients in the feed can not be absorbed and pig’s nutrition can not be satisfied. On the contrary, if the feed is too little, it will also affect the utilization rate of the feed if it cannot reach satiety according to the feeding standard.
2. When you prepare ingredients for pig feed formulation, you should consider many principles such as nutritionally comprehensive, whether the feed volume is appropriate is to control the crude fiber content, etc. The so-called nutritionally comprehensive is to make the protein and amino acids, energy, minerals, vitamins, etc. in the feed to meet the feeding standards. if you want to be able to do nutritionally, you must use a variety of comprehensive feed to match, so as to improve the nutritional value of pig feed.
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