Fish Feed Ingredients and Formulation
produces 50–55% of fish feed ingredients of making fish feed, with the remainder imported. Some raw materials such as rice bran requires processing in mills before incorporation into formulated fish feeds. Machines used for feed processing are directly imported by floating fish feed making machine with assistance of marketing agents from manufacturing companies.
The main ingredients of making fish feed are rice bran (20–50% inclusion), maize (5–20% inclusion), soybean meal (10–30% inclusion), mustard oil cake (10–25% inclusion), fish meal (5–15% inclusion) and meat and bone meal (10–20% inclusion).
◆ Rice bran is mainly produced locally, and is derived from rice milling. Only 30% of total rice bran production of Bangladesh is used for commercial animal feed production.
◆ Local production of maize has reached 1.65 million tonnes, of which 90–-95% is used for animal feed production, including 7–10% for fish feed. The market for maize is mainly controlled by the poultry industry.
1. Feed Ingredients of making fish feed
Fish feed is formulated by mixing several raw materials to make a balanced diet. These ingredients are crushed separately and later mixed to ratios before extrusion. The most commonly utilized feed ingredients in Kenya include: wheat or rice bran, sunflower or cottonseed cake, cassava, freshwater shrimp and etc.Proximate analysis of some commonly used fish feed ingredients
% Nutrient Concentration
Nitrogen free extracts
Cotton seed cake
2. Proportion of Materials in Feed Production
Fish Feed Production and Market Trends
Use of formulated feeds for fish farming is increasing in Bangladesh, associated with growth and intensification and commercialization of aquaculture. It seems that commercial pelleted feeds are starting to replace ‘farm-made’ and ‘raw’ unformulated feeds.
☞ Due to temperatures and water availability, the main season for commercial fish culture generally starts from March and continues until November, so the greatest volumes of feed are produced from April to September.
☞ Sinking feeds, which accounted for 81% of total manufactured output, still dominate over extruded floating feed (19%), but growth in the production of floating fish feed has been fastest, averaging 89% over the last four years.
☞ Farmers commonly feed their fish twice daily by broadcast feeding, but feed requirements are rarely measured properly (according to body weight) through timely sampling. Floating feed users are better able to measure feed requirements through observation of fish behavior, and feeding to satiation. Feed conversion ratios (FCRs) for floating pelleted feed are comparatively lower than for sinking pellet feed: approximately 1.5 vs 1.85 for tilapia and 1.6 vs 2.0 for pangas, though both could be improved by reducing wastage.